20140726

1. 영어 기사 읽기
1) Israel, Hamas agree to 12-hour Gaza cease-fire, CNN
– Early Saturday, Israel Defense Forces warned in a statement that it will respond if militants attack its personnel or fire at Israeli civilians during the cease-fire set to begin at 8 a.m. local time. (militants – 과격주의자)
– “There is always mischief from people who oppose certain things, and I consider this one of those mischievous things.” (mischief – 크게 심각하지 않은 나쁜 짓)

2) Facebook’s Zuck: Now worth more than the Google guys, Fortune
– Unlike Facebook, Amazon’s shares have plunged in the wake of its disappointing second-quarter earnings report, which revealed greater-than-expected losses despite increased sales. (plunge – 거꾸러지다, in the wake of – ~에 뒤이어)

3) The Answer to Every Business Question Is “It Depends”, HBR
– Would they discover their MBA frameworks to be a bunch of academic mumbo-jumbo with no real applicability? (mumbo-jumbo – 아무 의미도 없으면서 복잡하기만 한 말)
– We trudged through ice and snow in Enid, Oklahoma, cruised over mountain passes near Missoula, Montana, and dodged mammoth raindrops in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. (trudge – 지쳐서 터덜터덜 걷다)
– Elisa identified the performance she hoped to elicit from employees and simply tied pay to a measure of this performance. (elicit from – 정보 또는 반응을 어렵게 끌어내다)
– Employees, he found, focused too much on uncovering problems with customers’ cars, creating an incentive to do a hard sell, or worse, to suggest unnecessary repairs, which turned people off and, JR believed, cost him more in the long run. (hard sell – 강매, turn somebody off – ~를 지루하게, 흥미를 잃게 만들다.)
– The key to making good business decisions is to assess how the potential benefits and potential costs of a particularly strategy, in this case an incentive plan, pertains in your specific situation. (pertain – 특정한 상황에 존재하다, 적용되다.)

4) Korean officials: Ferry fugitive’s cause of death unknown, CNN
South Korean forensics officials say they are sure the body found in a plum orchard last month is Yoo Byung Eun, a billionaire fugitive who was wanted in connection to the fatal Sewol ferry crash that claimed nearly 300 lives. (fugitive – 도망자, 탈주자)
– But the country’s forensics service said there was no way to determine the cause of death of Yoo, 73, because of the decomposed state of the body. (decomposed – 부패된)
– According to various tests conducted, Yoo was not poisoned or suffocated. (suffocate – 질식사하게 하다)
– Yoo’s representatives denied this allegation. (allegation – 증거 없이 누가 부정한 일을 했다는 혐의)
– South Korean authorities had been under scrutiny for their inability to find the elusive billionaire despite a massive manhunt, involving 8,000 officers, in the weeks following the incident. (elusive – 찾기 힘든, manhunt – 조직적인 범인 수색)
– Suggestions that police bungled the investigation prompted officers to hold Friday’s press conference. (bungle – ~을 엉망으로 하다.)
– Yoo’s body can now be turned over to his family, but the whereabouts of most of his children are not known. ( turn over – 주다, 넘기다., whereabouts – 소재)


2. 새내기 세미나 준비 ([NSDI’13] Effective Straggler Mitigation Attack of the Clones)
[NSDI’13] Effective Straggler Mitigation Attack of the Clones에서 언급하는 논문을 대강 읽어봄.
– Even when the job has six phases, improvement is at 31%, a direct result of its deft cost-benefit analysis. (deft – 빠른)

1) [OSDI’04] MapReduce Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters
좀 더 자세히 읽어보니, MapReduce 논문은 실제로 적용된 다음에 발표된 논문이라 그런지, 구현했을 때 발생하는 문제점들을 잘 다루고 있었다. MapReduce는 어떤 과정을 거쳐 실행되는지, 어떻게 fault tolerance를 보장할 것인지, 디버깅은 어떻게 할 것인지 등. Related Work에서 저자가 언급하듯, 그동안 유사한 시도는 많았지만 fault tolerant하면서 scalable하게 구현한 것은 MapReduce가 처음이라는 것이다. 그리고 MapReduce의 가장 큰 장점은 machine failure, slow machine, network hiccups등과 같은 문제를 프로그래머가 생각하지 않아도 된다는 점이다.
– Stragglers can arise for a whole host of reasons. (a host of – 다수의)

2) [OSDI’08] Improving MapReduce Performance in Heterogeneous Environments
Hadoop 스케쥴러로 LATE를 제안한다. Hadoop의 성능은 task scheduler에 의해 크게 좌우되는데, 기존의 task scheduler는 cluster node들이 모두 homogeneous 하고, linear하게 진행된다고 가정한다는 것이다. 하지만 실제로 cluster node들이 homogeneous한 경우는 드물다. LATE는 straggler를 제거하는 것을 목적으로 하며, 기본적으로 가장 늦게 끝날 것 같은 task를 speculative하게 실행한다. 좀 더 구체적으로는 여기에 몇 가지 조건이 더 붙는다. 너무 많은 speculative task가 실행되지 않는다는 가정 하에, straggler를 유발하지 않은 node에 가장 늦게 끝날 것 같은 task를 speculative하게 실행한다.

3) [OSDI’10] Reining in the Outliers in MapReduce Clusters using Mantri
마찬가지로 straggler를 제거하기 위한 목적으로 Mantri라는 스케쥴러를 제안한다. 이 논문에서는 outlier(straggler)를 유발하는 원인을 분석하고, 각각의 원인에 맞게 outlier를 처리해 없앤다. Mantri의 핵심은 cause awareness와 resource cognizance이다. Cause awareness는 이해하기 쉬웠으나, resource cognizance의 개념은 이해하기 힘들었다.
-We present Mantri, a system that monitors tasks and culls outliers using cause- and resource-aware techniques. (cull – (특정 동물의 수를 제한하기 위해)도태시키다)


3. 그 외 몇 편의 논문 읽음.
1) S.Keshav, How to Read a Paper
– The key idea is that you should read the paper in up to three passes, instead of starting at the beginning and plowing your way to the end. (plow – 힘들여 읽다)
Incidentally, when you write a paper, you can expect most reviewers (and readers) to make only one pass over it. (Incidentally – 그건 그렇고)
– If a reviewer cannot understand the gist after one pass, the paper will likely be rejected. (gist – 요지)
– It helps to jot down the key points, or to make comments in the margins, as you read. (jot down – 쓰다)
– You should be able to summarize the main thrust of the paper, with supporting evidence, to someone else. (thrust – 요지)

2) [CAN’11] The Gem5 Simulator
며칠 전에 Gem5 simulator에 대해 정섭이 형이 설명해주셨는데, 직접 논문을 읽으니 이해가 더 잘 되었다.
– The overarching goal of the gem5 simulator is to be a community tool focused on architectural modeling. (overarch – 많은 것에 관련되므로 대단히 중요한)


4. at, in, on
at은 구체적인 시점, on은 날짜 또는 요일, in은 장기간의 시간 표현 앞에 쓴다.
last, this, next, every는 at, in, on이 필요 없다.

References:
[1] 전치사 at, in, on + [시간/장소] 차이는?, http://ilikeen.tistory.com/571
[2] 전치사 [At, On, In], http://saywhattalks.blog.me/220061053879
[3] 전치사 at, on, in 구별, http://koreng.tistory.com/81
[4] 전치사 at, in, on 필요 없는 네 가지 (last/this/next/every), http://ilikeen.tistory.com/1219

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