Scientific Writing, 4th Week

Quotation marks and related punctuation

한국어와 영어에서 single / double quotation marks는 다른 목적으로 쓰인다.
– 한국어에서 double quotation marks는 반복, 문장의 인용에 쓰인다.
– 한국어에서 single quoattion에서 생각과 상황을 알려주기 위해 쓰인다.
– 영어에서 double quotes가 일반적으로 쓰이며, single quotes는 드물게 double quotes 안에 쓰인다.
– Smith explained, “We found numerous cases of what Freud would call ‘slips’ during the conversation”
– 영국 영어에서는 반대로 한다.

Rules when quoting someone else’s words directly
– Complete sentence를 인용할 때에는 첫 번째 단어를 대문자로 쓴다.
– 일부분만 인용할 때에는 첫 단어를 대문자로 쓰지 않는다.
– 나뉘어졌을 때에는 두 번째에는 대문자로 쓰지 않는다.
– … “We refuse to use…”
– … stated that they “refuse to use…”
– “He likes to talk about…”, she said, “especially…”

Do not use quoatation marks for indirect quotes
– Ex. The beekeepers explained that they wear protective masks and suits to prevent stings

In a quote, use brackets to add words and ellipsis to remove them
– An ellipsis(…) can be used to signify that some words in the quotation were left out for conciseness
– Brackets [] can be used when something must be added to the quote for clarity.

Use quotation marks for the titles of minor works and parts of larger works
1) Titles of minor works:
songs, short stories, essays, short poems, one-act plays
2) Titles of parts of larger works
chapters in books, articles in newspapers, episodes of television and radio series

Italicize titles of major or works that contain smaller segments
– Books, plays of three or more acts, newspapers, magazines, journals, periodical publications, films, television and radio series

Use quotation marks to indicate words used ironically, sarcastically, or doubtfully
– 그 표현 또는 단어를 비꼬는 목적으로 quotation marks 사용한다.

Additional uses for italics
– For words used as words themselves or for technical or unfamiliar terms used for the first time
– Ex. The English word nuance comes from a Middle French word meaning “shades of color”

Dialogue tag 또는 colon을 사용해 quotation 할 수 있다.
– As D. H. Nachas explains, “The gestures used for greeting …”
– D. H. Nachas explains … customs:
Touching is not a universal…

Rules for commas and periods in American English
– Put commas and periods within closing quotation marks, except when a parenthetical reference follows the quotation.
– He said, “I may forget your name, but I never remember a face.”
– History is stained with blood spilled in the name of “civilization.”
– Mullen, criticizing the apparent inaction, writes, “Donahue’s policy was to do nothing”[27].

Put colons and semicolons outside closing quotation marks
– Williams described the experiment as “a definitive step forward”; other scientists disagreed

Dashes, question marks, and exclamation points vary by case.
– Philip asked, “Do you need this book?”
– Does Dr. Lim always say to her students, “You must work harder”?
– Sharon shouted enthusiastically, “We won!, We Won!”
– I’m really tired of that song, “Gangnam Style”!

Reducing unnecessary complexity in writing

Use technical terms only where absolutely necessary to convey a technical idea
– Minimize use of specialized jargon, and especially abbreviations.
– If you can say the exact same thing in common words, do so.
– 복잡도를 측정하는 기준으로 Gunning Fog index가 있음.

Paragraph length

Keep Paragraphs Short and Unified
– 3~5개의 문장으로 한 개의 문단을 구성하라.
– 한 문장으로 한 개의 문단을 구성하지 말라.
– 한 문단은 한 개의 아이디어 아래에 통합되어야 한다.
– 독자들은 한 문단에 100개 이하의 단어로 구성된 문단을 읽을 때 쉽게 읽는다. (3~5개 문장)
– 짧은 문단이 더 구성이 잘 된 것으로 보인다.

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Posted in 3) English

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